Randomised controlled trials in homeopathy

Criteria and methods for data extraction

This section contains references to full papers of randomised and controlled trials (RCTs) of homeopathy (treatment or prevention, placebo-controlled design or otherwise) that have been published in the peer-review literature in any country and in any language from 1950 to 2013 inclusive. Any form of homeopathy (individualised or non-individualised) was eligible for inclusion. RCTs were primarily categorised as placebo-controlled or non-placebo-controlled. For the present analysis we do not distinguish between treatment trials and prevention trials. The analysis is based on our systematic review of the world’s RCT literature in homeopathy [Mathie RT, Hacke  D, Clausen J, et al. (2013). Randomised controlled trials of homeopathy in humans: characterising the research journal literature for systematic review. Homeopathy; 102: 3–24].

Note on statistical significance
A minority of placebo-controlled trials in homeopathy have defined a relevant threshold for clinical importance, with consequent absence of prospective power calculation. On this web page, therefore, positive or negative findings have been described consistently in statistical terms only.

A statistically conclusive trial result requires that the 95% confidence interval of the mean difference in outcome measure does not include 0 (or P<0.05); a statistically non-significant trial result is one in which the confidence interval includes 0 (or P>0.05). An RCT reporting statistically significant findings is labelled either ‘positive’ or ‘negative’, depending on whether the homeopathy group was superior or inferior to control in at least one main outcome of no more than three presented in the paper. Statistically non-significant trials are described as ‘non-conclusive’.

Overall summary of trial findings, 1950–2013

During this period, there were 188 peer-reviewed RCT papers published in homeopathy. For any paper that reports a trial comprising more than two groups of participants, we present here just one inter-group comparison and in the following hierarchy: placebo-controlled in favour of non-placebo-controlled; individualised homeopathy in favour of non-individualised homeopathy. The majority (153; 81%) of the 188 papers reported placebo-controlled studies, whilst the remaining 35 (19%) reported studies with a non-placebo comparator (e.g. usual medical care). Only 63 RCTs (34%) of the 188 papers have studied individualised homeopathy (46 of those 63 were placebo-controlled); each of the other 125 papers (66%) has studied non-individualised homeopathy (i.e. selected a single homeopathic medicine for investigation).

Of the 188 papers in total, 82 (44%) reported positive findings; 10 (5%) were negative; 89 (47%) were non-conclusive; 7 (4%) contained non-extractable data.

The 188 papers represent research in a total of 100 different medical conditions. In 33 of those conditions, there has been replicated research (i.e. there have been two or more trials); for each of the other 67 conditions, there are singleton RCTs. No account is taken here of the intrinsic quality of the research; this important factor is included in our ongoing programme of systematic reviews.

Direction of RCT evidence per medical condition

A score of +1 is given to a positive RCT0 to a non-conclusive RCT–1 to a negative RCT.

The overall direction of RCT evidence for each medical condition relates to the sum of the scores derived from the RCT research for that particular condition:

Sum of +3 or more: Clearly positive direction of evidence
Sum of +2 or +1: Tentatively positive direction of evidence
Sum of 0: Non-conclusive direction of evidence
Sum of –1 or –2: Tentatively negative direction of evidence
Sum of –3 or less: Clearly negative direction of evidence.

This method of summarising direction of evidence in sets of RCTs is similar in essence to that adopted previously [Ernst E, Pittler MH, Wider B (2006). The Desktop Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine; an evidence-based approach. Mosby Elsevier]. It is not meant as a replacement for formal assessment procedures, such as systematic review and/or meta-analysis, which determine a trial’s intrinsic quality and/or the size of treatment effect for a specified outcome measure.

The summary method is intended to give an overall impression about the current nature of the RCT evidence per medical condition, pending more formal systematic review. Such formal review would also take account of whether evidence has been reported by independent research groups.

As shown in the detailed reference list below, there is:

Clearly positive direction of RCT evidence in 4 conditions:

Fibromyalgia 1, 2, 3
Influenza 4-7
Insomnia 8-12
Seasonal allergic rhinitis 13-21

Tentatively positive direction of RCT evidence in 52 conditions:

Replicated research:
Allergic asthma 22, 23
Arsenic toxicity 24-27
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 28-31
Blood coagulation 32, 33
Childhood diarrhoea 34–37
Common cold 38, 39
Depression 40, 41, 42
Female infertility 43, 44, 45
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) 46, 47
Low back pain 48, 49, 50
Menopausal syndrome 51, 52, 53
Muscle soreness 54-61
Osteoarthritis 62, 63, 64
Otitis media (acute) 65, 66, 67
Post-operative bruising 68, 69
Post-operative pain 70-74
Sinusitis 75-78
Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) 79–82
Vertigo 83-84

Non-replicated research: singleton RCTs
Allergic skin reaction 85
Aphthous ulcer 86
Brain injury 87
Bronchitis 88
Chronic fatigue syndrome 89
Haemorrhoids 90
Immune function 91
Malnutrition 92
Nappy rash 93
Nocturnal enuresis 94
Non-allergic rhinitis 95
Oral lichen planus 96
Perennial allergic rhinitis 97
Plantar fasciitis 98
Post-operative oedema 99
Post-operative wound healing 100
Postpartum bleeding 101
Postpartum lactation 102
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) 103
Psoriasis 104
Radiodermatitis 105
Renal failure 106
Respiratory insufficiency 107
Seborrhoeic dermatitis 108
Sepsis 109
Snoring 110
Sprain 111
Stomatitis 112
Tonsillitis 113
Tracheal secretions 114
Uraemic pruritus 115
Varicose veins 116
Xerostomia (Dry mouth) 117

Unclear direction of RCT evidence in 39 conditions:

Replicated research:
Adenoid 118, 119
Anxiety 120–123
Childhood asthma 124-126
Eczema 126-129
Hypertension 130-134
Menopausal symptoms after breast cancer 135, 136
Migraine 137, 138
Post-operative pain/swelling 139, 140, 141
Warts 142, 143

Non-replicated research: singleton RCTs
Allergic rhinitis 144
Ankylosing spondylitis 145
Body weight loss 146
Cerebral palsy 147
Chemotherapy-induced emesis 148
Cholera 149
Chronic periodontitis 150
Conjunctivitis 151
Cough 152
Dengue fever symptoms 153
Dyspepsia 154
Eye infection 155
Headache 156
HIV 157
Induction of labour 158
Lead poisoning 159
Malaria 160
Male infertility 161
Mental fatigue 162
Minor burns 163
Mucositis 164
Orthostatic hypotension 165
Otitis media (chronic) 166
Post-operative bleeding 167
Post-operative haematoma 168
Postpartum pain 169
Proctocolitis 170
Shift lag 171
Tinnitus 172
Withdrawal of benzodiazepines 173

Tentatively negative direction of RCT evidence in 5 conditions

Non-replicated research: singleton RCTs
Leg ulcers 174
Post-operative analgesic intake 175
Post-operative ileus 176
Vulvo-vaginal candidiasis 177

Replicated research:
Rheumatoid arthritis 178-181

Thus, of the medical conditions for which RCTs have been carried out in homeopathy, 44% have an overall balance of positive evidence, 5% have a balance of negative evidence, and 47% are non-conclusive either way.

The above figures have similarities to data obtained from an analysis of 1016 systematic reviews of RCTs (and therefore of many more than that number of RCTs in total): 44% of the reviews concluded that the interventions studied were likely to be beneficial (positive), 7% concluded that the interventions were likely to be harmful (negative), and 49% reported that the evidence did not support either benefit or harm (non-conclusive). [El Dib RP, Atallah AN, Andriolo RB (2007). Mapping the Cochrane evidence for decision making in health care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice; 13:689–692.]


Reference numbers and first author’s name are colour-coded to reflect the main findings as follows: positive RCT; non-conclusive RCTnegative RCT

Clearly positive direction of RCT evidence: 4 medical conditions

1. Bell I, Lewis D, Brooks A, Schwartz G, Lewis S, Walsh B, Baldwin C (2004). Improved clinical status in fibromyalgia patients treated with individualized homeopathic remedies versus placebo. Rheumatology; 43:577–582.

2. Fisher P, Greenwood A, Huskisson EC, Turner B, Belon P (1989). Effect of homoeopathic treatment on fibrositis (primary fibromyalgia). British Medical Journal; 299: 365-366.

3. Relton C, Smith C, Raw J, Walters C, Adebajo AO, Thomas KJ, Young TA (2009). Healthcare provided by a homeopath as an adjunct to usual care for fibromyalgia (FMS): results of a pilot randomised controlled trial. Homeopathy; 98:77–82.


4. Brydak LB, Denys A (1999). The evaluation of humoral response and the clinical evaluation of a risk-group patients’ state of health after administration of the homeopathic preparation Gripp-Heel during the influenza epidemic season 1993/94. International Review of Allergology and Clinical Immunology; 5:223–227.

5. Ferley JP, Zmirou D, D’Adhemar D, Balducci F (1989). A controlled evaluation of a homoeopathic preparation in the treatment of influenza like syndromes. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 27:329–335.

6. Papp R, Schuback G, Beck E, Burkard G, Bengel J, Lehrl S, Belon P (1998). Oscillococcinum® in patients with influenza-like syndromes: a placebo-controlled double-blind evaluation. British Homoeopathic Journal; 87:69–76.

7. Chakraborty PS, Lamba CD, Nayak D, John MD, Sarkar DB, Poddar A, Arya JS, Raju K, Vivekanand K, Singh HBK, Baig H, Prusty AK, Singh V, Nayak C (2013). Effect of individualized homoeopathic treatment in influenza like illness: A multicenter, single blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. Indian J Res Homoeopathy; 7: 22-30.


8. Carlini EA, Braz S, Troncone LRP, Tufik S, Romanach AK, Pustiglione M, Sposati MC, Cudizio Filho O, Prado MIA (1987). Efeito hipnótico de medicação homeopática e do placebo. Avaliação pela técnica de “duplo-cego” e “cruzamento” [Hypnotic effect of homeopathic medication and placebo. Evaluation by "double-blind" and "crossover" techniques]. Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira; 33:83–88.

9. Kolia-Adam N, Solomon E, Bond J, Deroukakis M (2008). The efficacy of Coffea cruda on insomnia: a double blind trial. Simillimum; 21: 91–99.

10. Naudé DF, Couchman IMS, Maharaj A (2010). Chronic primary insomnia: efficacy of homeopathic simillimum. Homeopathy; 99:63–68. [Published erratum: Homeopathy 2010; 99: 151]

11. Harrison CC, Solomon EM, Pellow J (2013). The effect of a homeopathic complex on psychophysiological onset insomnia in males: a randomized pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2013;19:38-43.

12. Bell IR, Howerter A, Jackson N, Aickin M, Bootzin RR, Brooks AJ (2012). Nonlinear dynamical systems effects of homeopathic remedies on multiscale entropy and correlation dimension of slow wave sleep EEG in young adults with histories of coffee-induced insomnia. Homeopathy; 101: 182-192.

Seasonal allergic rhinitis
13. Aabel S (2001). Prophylactic and acute treatment with the homeopathic medicine Betula 30c for birch pollen allergy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of consistency of VAS responses. British Homeopathic Journal; 90:73–78.

14. Aabel S, Laerum E, Dølvik S, Djupesland P (2000). Is homeopathic ‘immunotherapy’ effective? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with the isopathic remedy Betula 30c for patients with birch pollen allergy. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:161–168.

15. Aabel S (2000). No beneficial effect of isopathic prophylactic treatment for birch pollen allergy during a low-pollen season: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of homeopathic Betula 30c. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:169–173.

16. Kim LS, Riedlinger JE, Baldwin CM, Hilli L, Khalsa SV, Messer SA, Waters RF (2005). Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis using homeopathic preparation of common allergens in the southwest region of the US: a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Annals of Pharmacotherapy; 39:617–624.

17. Reilly DT, Taylor MA, McSharry C, Aitchison T (1986). Is homeopathy a placebo response? Controlled trial of homeopathic potency, with pollen in hayfever as model. Lancet; ii:881–885.

18. Weiser M, Gegenheimer LH, Klein P (1999). A randomized equivalence trial comparing the efficacy and safety of Luffa comp.-Heel nasal spray with cromolyn sodium spray in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde, 6:142–148.

19. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W (1985). Double-blind trial comparing the effectiveness of the homoeopathic preparation Galphimia potentization D6, Galphimia dilution 10?6 and placebo on pollinosis. Arzneimittel Forschung; 35:1745–1747.

20. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W, Häussler S (1990). Behandlung der Pollinoisis mit Galphimia glauca. Eine Doppelblindstudie unter Praxisbedingungen [Treatment of pollinosis with the homeopathic preparation Galphimia glauca. A double-blind trial in clinical practice]. Allergologie; 13:359–363.

21. Wiesenauer M, Lüdtke R (1995). The treatment of pollinosis with Galphimia glauca D4 – a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. Phytomedicine; 2: 3–6.

Tentatively positive direction of RCT evidence: 52 medical conditions
Replicated Research

Allergic Asthma
22. Lewith G, Watkins AD, Hyland ME (2002). Use of ultramolecular potencies of allergen to treat asthmatic people allergic to house dust mite: double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. British Medical Journal; 324:520–523.

23. Reilly D, Taylor MA, Beattie NGM, Campbell JH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC, Carter R, Stevenson RD (1994). Is evidence for homeopathy reproducible? Lancet; 344:1601–1606.

Arsenic toxicity
24. Belon P, Banerjee P, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, Karmakar SR, Pathak S, Guha B, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2006). Can administration of potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum album, alter antinuclear antibody (ANA) titre in people living in high-risk arsenic contaminated areas? I. A correlation with certain hematological parameters. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med; 3:99–107.

25. Belon P, Banerjee A, Karmakar SR, Biswas SJ, Choudhury SC, Banerjee P, Das JK, Pathak S, Guha B, Paul S, Bhattacharjee N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR (2007). Homeopathic remedy for arsenic toxicity? Evidence-based findings from a randomized placebo-controlled double blind human trial. Science of the Total Environment; 384:141–50.

26. Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Pathak S, Guha B, Karmakar SR, Das JK, Banerjee P, Biswas SJ, Mukherjee P, Bhattacharjee N, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Bhadra S, Mallick P, Chakrabarti J, Mandal B (2005). Can homeopathic arsenic remedy combat arsenic poisoning in humans exposed to groundwater arsenic contamination? A preliminary report on first human trial. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine; 2:537–548.

27. Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, Karmakar SR, Banerjee P, Pathak S, Guha B, Haque S, Das D, De A, Das D, Boujedaini N (2011). An initial report on the efficacy of a millesimal potency Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 in ameliorating arsenic toxicity in humans living in a high-risk arsenic village. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine / Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao; 9: 596–604.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
28. Frei H, Everts R, von Ammon K, Kaufmann F, Walther D, Hsu-Schmitz SF, Collenberg M, Fuhrer K, Hassink R, Steinlin M, Thurneysen A (2005). Homeopathic treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled crossover trial. European Journal of Pediatrics; 164:758–767.

29. Jacobs J, Williams A-L, Girard C, Njike VY, Katz D (2005). Homeopathy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot randomized-controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 11:799–806.

30. Razlog R, Pellow J, White SJ (2012). A pilot study on the efficacy of Valeriana officinalis mother tincture and Valeriana officinalis 3x in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Health SA Gesondheid; 17; #603.

31. Oberai P, Gopinadhan S, Varanasi R, Mishra A, Singh V, Nayak C (2013). Homoeopathic management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomised placebo-controlled pilot trial. Indian J Res Homoeopathy; 7: 158-167.

Blood Coagulation
32. Baillargeon L, Drouin J, Desjardins L, Leroux D, Audet D (1993). Les effets de l’Arnica Montana sur la coagulation sanguine. Essai clinique randomisé [The effects of Arnica Montana on blood coagulation. Randomized controlled trial]. Canadian Family Physician; 39:2362–2367.

33. Heusser P, Berger S, Stutz M, Hüsler A, Haeberli A, Wolf U (2009). Efficacy of homeopathically potentized antimony on blood coagulation. A randomized placebo controlled crossover trial. Forschende Komplementärmedizin; 16:14–18.

Childhood diarrhoea
34. Jacobs J, Jiminez LM, Gloyds SS, Casares FE, Gaitan MP, Crothers D (1993). Homoeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea. A randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. British Homoeopathic Journal; 82:83–86.

35. Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Gloyds SS, Gale JL, Crothers D (1994). Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine; a randomized clinical trial in Nicaragua. Pediatrics; 93:719–725.

36. Jacobs J, Guthrie BL, Montes GA, Jacobs LE, Mickey-Colman N, Wilson AR, DiGiacomo R (2006). Homeopathic combination remedy in the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea in Honduras. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 12:723–732.

37. Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Malthouse S, Chapman E, Crothers D, Masuk M, Jonas WB (2000). Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea: results from a clinical trial in Nepal. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 6:131–139.

Common cold
38. Gassinger CA, Wünstel G, Netter P (1981). Klinische Prüfung zum Nachweis der therapeutischen Wirksamkeit des homöopathischen Arzneimittels Eupatorium perfoliatum D2 (Wasserhanf composite) bei der Diagnose “Grippaler Infekt”. [A controlled clinical trial for testing the efficacy of the homeopathic drug Eupatorium perfoliatum D2 in the treatment of common cold]. Arzneimittel Forschung; 31:732–736.

39. Maiwald VL, Weinfurtner T, Mau J, Connert WD (1988). Therapie des grippalen Infekts mit einem homöopathischen Kombinationspräparat im Vergleich zu Acetylsalycilsäure. Kontrollierte, randomisierte Einfachblindstudie [Treatment of common cold with a combination homeopathic preparation compared with acetylsalicylic acid. A controlled, randomized single-blind study]. Arzneimittel Forschung; 38:578–582.

40. Adler UC, Paiva NM, Cesar AT, Adler MS, Molina A, Padula AE, Calil HM (2009). Homeopathic individualized Q-potencies versus fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression: double-blind, randomized non-inferiority trial. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM [Epub ahead of print]

41. Katz T, Fisher P, Katz A, Davidson J, Feder G (2005). The feasibility of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial of homeopathic treatment of depression in general practice. Homeopathy; 94: 145–52.

Adler UC, Krüger S, Teut M, Lüdtke R, Schützler L, Martins F, Willich SN, Linde K, Witt CM (2013). Homeopathy for depression: A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed study (DEP-HOM). PLoS ONE; 8: e74537.

Female infertility
43. Bergmann J, Luft B, Boehmann S, Runnebaum B, Gerhard I (2000). Die Wirksamkeit des Komplexmittels Phyto-Hypophyson® L bei weiblicher, hormonell bedingter Sterilität. Eine randomisierte, plazebokontrollierte, klinische Doppelblindstudie [The efficacy of the complex medication Phyto-Hypophyson L in female, hormone-related sterility. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical double-blind study]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde; 7:190–199. (2 sets of comparisons: one positive; one non-conclusive)

44. Gerhard I, Monga B, Roebruck P, Runnebaum B (1997). Homoeopathy versus conventional therapy in female infertility: Interim analysis of a randomized study. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und klassische Naturheilverfahren; 5:262–269.

45. Gerhard I, Pateck A, Monga B, Blank A, Gorkow C (1998). Mastodynon bei weiblicher Sterilitat. Randomisierte, plazenbokontrollierte, klinische oppelblindstudie. [Mastodynon for female infertility. Randomised, placebo controlled, clinical double-blind study]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin; 5:272–278.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
46. Rahlfs VW, Mössinger P (1976). Zur Behandlung des Colon irritable: Ein multizentrischer plazebo-kontrollierter Doppelblindversuch in der Allgemeinen Praxis [Treatment of irritable colon: A multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study in general practice]. Arzneimittel Forschung; 26:2230–2234.

47. Rahlfs VW, Mössinger P (1978). Asa foetida bei Colon irritabile – Doppelblindversuch [Asa foetida in the treatment of the irritable colon – a double-blind trial]. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift; 104:140–143.

Low back pain
48. Gmünder R, Kissling R (2002). The efficacy of homeopathy in the treatment of chronic low back pain compared to standardized physiotherapy. Z Orthop Ihre Grenzgeb; 140: 503–508.

49. Pach D, Brinkhaus B, Roll S, Wegscheider K, Icke K, Willich SN, Witt CM (2011). Efficacy of injections with Disci/Rhus toxicodendron compositum for chronic low back pain – A randomized placebo-controlled trial. PLoS One; 6: e26166. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

50. Stam C, Bonnet MS, van Haselen RA (2001). The efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel in the treatment of acute low back pain: a multi-centre, randomized, double-blind comparative clinical trial. British Homeopathic Journal, 90:21–28.

Menopausal syndrome
51. von Hagens C, Schiller P, Godbillon B, Osburg J, Klose C, Limprecht R, Strowitzki T (2012). Treating menopausal symptoms with a complex remedy or placebo: a randomized controlled trial. Climacteric: 15:358-367

52. Colau JC, Vincent S, Marijnen P, Allaert FA (2012). Efficacy of a non-hormonal treatment, BRN-01, on menopausal hot flashes: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Drugs R D;12:107-119.

53. Relton C, O’Cathain A, Nicholl J (2012). A pilot ‘cohort multiple randomised controlled trial’ of treatment by a homeopath for women with menopausal hot flushes. Contemp Clin Trials; 33:853-859.

Muscle soreness
54. Adkison JD, Bauer DW, Chang T (2010). The effect of topical arnica on muscle pain. Ann Pharmacother; 44:1579–1584.

55. Jawara N, Lewith G, Mullee M, Smith C (1997). Homoeopathic Arnica and Rhus Toxicodendron for delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. British Homoeopathic Journal, 86:10–15.

56. Tuten C, McLung J. Reducing muscle soreness with Arnica montana. Alternative and Complementary Therapies; 1999, 5, 6, 369–372.

57. Tveiten D, Bruseth S, Borchgrevink CF, Løhne K (1991). Effekt av Arnica D 30 ved hard fysisk anstrengelse. En doppeltblind randomisert undersøkelse under Oslo maraton 1990 [Effect of Arnica D30 on hard physical exertion. A double-blind randomized trial during the 1990 Oslo Marathon]. Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening, 111:3630–3631.

58. Tveiten D, Bruseth S, Borchgrevink CF, Norseth J (1998). Effects of the homoeopathic remedy Arnica D30 on marathon runners: a randomized, double-blind study during the 1995 Oslo Marathon. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 6:71–74.

59. Vickers AJ, Fisher P, Smith C, Wyllie SE, Lewith GT (1997). Homoeopathy for delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31:304–307.

60. Vickers AJ, Fisher P, Smith C, Wyllie SE, Rees R (1998). Homeopathic Arnica 30X is ineffective for muscle soreness after long-distance running: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Journal of Pain, 14:227–231.

61. Plezbert JA, Burke JR (2005). Effects of the homeopathic remedy Arnica on attenuating symptoms of exercise-induced muscle soreness. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine; 4: 152–161.

62. Shealy CN, Thomlinson RP, Cox RH, Borgmeyer RN (1998). Osteoarthritic pain: a comparison of homeopathy and acetaminophen. American Journal of Pain Management; 8:89–91.

63. Shipley M, Berry H, Broster G, Jenkins M, Clover A, Williams I (1983). Controlled trial of homoeopathic treatment of osteoarthritis. Lancet; i:97–98. (2 sets of comparisons: one negative; one non-conclusive)

64. van Haselen RA, Fisher PAG (2000). A randomized controlled trial comparing topical piroxicam gel with a homeopathic gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology; 39:714–719.

Otitis media (acute)
65. Jacobs J, Springer DA, Crothers D (2001). Homeopathic treatment of acute otitis media in children: a preliminary randomized placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal; 20:177–183.

66. Taylor JA, Jacobs J (2011). Homeopathic ear drops as an adjunct to standard therapy in children with acute otitis media. Homeopathy; 100: 109–115.

67. Sinha MN, Siddiqui VA, Nayak C, Singh V, Dixit R, Dewan D, Mishra A (2012). Randomized controlled pilot study to compare homeopathy and conventional therapy in acute otitis media. Homeopathy; 101: 5-12.

Post-operative bruising
68. Kotlus BS,Heringer DM, Dryden RM (2010). Evaluation of homeopathic arnica montana for ecchymosis after upper blepharoplasty: A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study. Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; 26:395–397.

69. Seeley BM, Denton AB, Ahn MS, Maas CS (2006). Effect of homeopathic Arnica montana on bruising in face-lifts: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Archives of Facial Plastic Surgery; 8:54–59.

Post-operative pain
70. Hart O, Mullee MA, Lewith G, Miller J (1997). Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of homoeopathic arnica C30 for pain and infection after total abdominal hysterectomy. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine; 90:73–78.

71. Lökken P, Straumsheim PA, Tveiten D, Skjelbred P, Borchgrevink CF (1995). Effect of homoeopathy on pain and other events after acute trauma; placebo controlled trial with bilateral oral surgery. British Medical Journal; 310:1439–1442.

72. Robertson A, Suryanarayanan R, Banerjee A (2007). Homeopathic Arnica montana for post-tonsillectomy analgesia: a randomised placebo control trial. Homeopathy; 96:17–21.

73. Singer SR, Amit-Kohn M, Weiss S, Rosenblum J, Maoz G, Samuels N, Lukasiewicz E, Freedman L, Paltiel O, Itzchaki M, Niska M, Oberbaum M (2010). Traumeel S for pain relief following hallux valgus surgery: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Clinical Pharmacology; 10: 9.

74. Wolf M, Tamaschke C, Mayer W, Heger M (2003). Wirksamkeit von Arnica bei Varizenoperation: Ergebnisse einer randomisierten, doppelblinden, Placebo-kontrollierten Pilot-Studie [Efficacy of Arnica in varicose vein surgery: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde; 10:242–247.

75. Friese K-H, Zabalotnyi DI (2007). Homöopathie bei akuter Rhinosinusitis. Eine doppelblinde, placebokontrollierte Studie belegt die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit eines homöopathischen Kombinations-arzneimittels [Homeopathy in acute rhinosinusitis. A double-blind, placebo controlled study shows the efficiency and tolerability of a homeopathic combination remedy]. HNO; 55:271–277.

76. Weiser M, Clasen B (1994). Randomisierte plazebokontrolierte Doppelblindstudie zur Untersuchung der klinische Wirksamkeit der homöopathischen Euphorbium compositum-Nasentropfen S bei chronischer Sinusitis [Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study of the clinical efficacy of the homeopathic Euphorbium compositum-S nasal spray in cases of chronic sinusitis]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin; 1:251–259. (2 sets of comparisons: one positive; one non-conclusive)

77. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W, Bohnacker U, Häussler S (1989). Wirksamkeitsprüfung von homöopathische Kombinationspräparaten bei Sinusitis. Ergebnisse einer randomisierten Doppelblindstudie unter Praxisbedingungen [Efficiency of homeopathic preparation combinations in sinusitis. Results of a randomized double blind study with general practitioners]. Arzneimittel Forschung; 39:620–625. (3 sets of comparisons: all non-conclusive)

78. Zabolotnyi DI, Kneis KC, Richardson A, Rettenberger R, Heger M, Kaszkin-Bettag M, Heger PW (2007). Efficacy of a complex homeopathic medication (Sinfrontal) in patients with acute maxillary sinusitis: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Explore (NY); 3:98–109.

Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI)
79. de Lange de Klerk ESM,Blommers J, Kuik DJ, Bezemer PD, Feenstra L (1994). Effects of homoeopathic medicines on daily burden of symptoms in children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections. British Medical Journal; 309:1329–1332.

80. Jobst D, Altiner A, Wegscheider K, Abholz H-H (2005). Helfen intramusculäre Eigenblutgaben bei chronisch rezidivierenden Infekten der Atemwege? – Fußangeln auf dem Weg einer randomisierten Studie [Do autologous blood injections help against relapsing upper respiratory infections? – Traps on the way of doing a randomised trial]. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin; 81:258–263.

81. Steinsbekk A, Bentzen N, Fønnebø V, Lewith G (2005). Self treatment with one of three self selected, ultramolecular homeopathic medicines for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children. A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 59:447–455.

82. Steinsbekk A, Fønnebø V, Lewith G, Bentzen N (2005). Homeopathic care for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections in children: a pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial comparing randomized homeopathic care and waiting-list controls. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 13:231–238.

83. Issing W, Klein P, Weiser M (2005). The homeopathic preparation Vertigoheel versus Ginkgo biloba in the treatment of vertigo in an elderly population: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11:155–160.

84. Weiser M, Strösser W, Klein P (1998). Homeopathic vs. conventional treatment of vertigo: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical study. Archives of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, 124:879–885.

Singleton RCTs
(including single papers that report more than one set of comparisons)

Allergic skin reaction

85. Naidoo P , Pellow J (2013). A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of Cat saliva 9cH and Histaminum 9cH in cat allergic adults. Homeopathy; 102: 123–129.

Aphthous ulcer

86. Mousavi F, Mojaver YN, Asadzadeh M, Mirzazadeh M (2009). Homeopathic treatment of minor aphthous ulcer: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Homeopathy; 98: 137–141.

Brain injury
87. Chapman EH, Weintraub RJ, Milburn MA, Pirozzi TO, Woo E (1999). Homeopathic treatment of mild traumatic brain injury: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation; 14: 521–542.

88. Diefenbach M, Schilken J, Steiner G, Becker HJ (1997). Homöopathische Therapie bei Erkrankungen der Atemwege. Auswertung einer klinischen Studie bei 258 Patienten [Homeopathic therapy in respiratory tract diseases. Evaluation of a clinical study in 258 patients]. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin; 73:308–314.

Chronic fatigue syndrome
89. Weatherley-Jones E, Nicholl JP, Thomas KJ, Parry GJ, McKendrick MW, Green ST, Stanley PJ, Lynch SP (2004). A randomized, controlled, triple-blind trial of the efficacy of homeopathic treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of Psychosomatic Research; 56:189–197.

90. Chakraborty PS, Varanasi R, Majumdar AK, Banoth K, Prasad S, Ghosh MS, Sinha MN, Reddy GRC, Singh V, Nayak, C (2013). Effect of homoeopathic LM potencies in acute attacks of haemorrhoidal disease: A multicentric randomized single-blind placebo-controlled trial. Indian J Res Homoeopathy; 7: 72-80.

Immune function
91. Kuzeff RM (1998). Homeopathy, sensation of well-being and CD4-levels – A placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 6:4–9.


92. Villanueva DFD, Rodríguez AP, García LRG, Osés CAM (2012). Use of homeopathic formula in malnourished children. Int J High Dilution Res; 11: 25-32.

Nappy rash

93. Pellow J, Swanepoel M (2013). A randomised pilot study on the efficacy of milking cream and a homeopathic complex topical cream on diaper dermatitis. Health SA Gesondheid; 18; #680.

Nocturnal enuresis
94. Ferrara P, Marrone G, Emmanuele V, Nicoletti A, Mastrangelo A, Tiberi E, Ruggiero A, Fasano A, Paolini Paoletti F (2008). Homotoxicological remedies versus desmopressin versus placebo in the treatment of enuresis: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Pediatric Nephrology;23:269–274. Epub 2007 Feb 20.

Non-allergic rhinitis
95. Bernstein JA, Davis BP, Picard JK, Cooper JP, Zheng S, Levin LS (2011). A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial comparing capsaicin nasal spray with placebo in subjects with a significant component of non-allergic rhinitis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology; 107: 171–178.

Oral lichen planus
96. Mousavi F, Sherafati S, Mojaver YN (2009). Ignatia in the treatment of oral lichen planus. Homeopathy; 98: 40–44.

Perennial allergic rhinitis
97. Taylor MA, Reilly D, Llewellyn-Jones RH, McSharry C, Aitchison TC (2000). Randomised controlled trial of homoeopathy versus placebo in perennial allergic rhinitis with overview of four trial series. British Medical Journal; 321:471–476.

Plantar fasciitis
98. Clark J, Percivall A (2000). A preliminary investigation into the effectiveness of the homeopathic remedy, Ruta graveolens, in the treatment of pain in plantar fasciitis. British Journal of Podiatry; 3:81–85.

Post-operative oedema
99. Totonchi A, Guyuron B (2007). A randomized, controlled comparison between arnica and steroids in the management of postrhinoplasty ecchymosis and edema. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery; 120:271–274. (2 sets of comparisons: both positive)

Post-operative wound healing
100. Karow J-H, Abt H-P, Fröhling M, Ackermann H (2008). Efficacy of Arnica montana D4 for healing of wounds after Hallux valgus surgery compared to diclofenac. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 14:17–25.

Postpartum bleeding
101. Oberbaum M, Galoyan N, Lerner-Geva L, Singer SR, Grisaru S, Shashar D, Samueloff A (2005). The effect of the homeopathic remedies Arnica and Bellis perennis on mild postpartum bleeding – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study – preliminary results. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 13:87–90.

Postpartum lactation
102. Berrebi A, Parant O, Ferval F, Thene M, Ayoubi JM, Connan L, Belon P (2001). Traitement de la douleur de la montée laiteuse non souhaitée par homéopathie dans le postpartum immédiat [Treatment of pain due to unwanted lactation with a homeopathic preparation given in the immediate post-partum period]. Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction; 30:353–357.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
103. Yakir M, Kreitler S, Brzezinski A, Vithoulkas G, Oberbaum M, Bentwich Z (2001). Effects of homeopathic treatment in women with premenstrual syndrome: a pilot study. British Homeopathic Journal; 90:148–153.

104. Bernstein S, Donsky H, Gulliver W, Hamilton D, Nobel S, Norman R (2006). Treatment of mild to moderate psoriasis with Reliéva, a Mahonia aquifolium extract – a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. American Journal of Therapeutics; 13:121–126.

105. Balzarini A, Felisi E, Martini A, De Conno F (2000). Efficacy of homeopathic treatment of skin reactions during radiotherapy for breast cancer: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:8–12.

Renal failure
106. Saruggia M, Corghi E (1992). Effects of homoeopathic dilutions of china rubra on intradialytic symptomatology in patients treated with chronic haemodialysis. British Homoeopathic Journal; 81:86–88.

Respiratory insufficiency
107. Kienle G (1973). Wirkung von Carbo Betulae D6 bei respiratorischer Partialinsuffizienz [Effect of Carbo betulae D6 in partial respiratory insufficiency]. Arzneimittel-Forschung/ Drug Research; 23:840–842.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis
108. Smith SA, Baker AE, Williams JH (2002). Effective treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis using a low dose, oral homeopathic medication consisting of potassium bromide, sodium bromide, nickel sulfate, and sodium chloride in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Alternative Medicine Review; 7:59–67.

109. Frass M, Linkesch M, Banyai S, Resch G, Dielacher C, Lobl T, Endler C, Haidvogl M, Muchitsch I, Schuster E (2005). Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit. Homeopathy; 94:75–80.

110. Lipman D, Sexton G, Schlesser J (1999). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of a natural over-the-counter (OTC) medication in the management of snoring. Sleep and Breathing; 3: 53–56.

111. González de Vega C, Speed C, Wolfarth B, González J (2013). Traumeel vs. diclofenac for reducing pain and improving ankle mobility after acute ankle sprain: A multicentre, randomised, blinded, controlled and non-inferiority trial. International Journal of Clinical Practice; 67: 979-989.

112. Oberbaum M, Yaniv I, Ben-Gal Y, Stein J, Ben-Zvi N, Freedman LS, Branski D (2001). A randomized, controlled clinical trial of the homeopathic medication Traumeel S in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced stomatitis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation. Cancer; 92:684–690.

113. Furuta SE, Weckx LLM, Figueiredo CR (2007). Tratamento Homeopático da amigdalite recorrente em crianças: um estudo randomizado controlado [Homeopathic treatment of recurrent tonsillitis in children: a randomized controlled trial]. Revista de Homeopatia; 70:21–26.

Tracheal secretions
114. Frass M, Dielacher C, Linkesch M, Endler C, Muchitsch I, Schuster E, Kaye A (2005). Influence of potassium dichromate on tracheal secretions in critically ill patients. Chest; 127:936–941.

Uraemic pruritus
115. Cavalcanti AM, Rocha LM, Carillo R Jr, Lima LU, Lugon JR (2003). Effects of homeopathic treatment on pruritus of haemodialysis patients: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Homeopathy; 92:177–181.

Varicose veins
116. Ernst E, Saradeth T, Resch KL (1990). Complementary therapy of varicose veins – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Phlebology; 5:157–163.

Xerostomia (Dry mouth)
117. Haila S, Koskinen A, Tenovuo J (2005). Effects of homeopathic treatment on salivary flow rate and subjective symptoms in patients with oral dryness: a randomized trial. Homeopathy; 94:175–181.

Unclear direction of RCT evidence: 39 medical conditions
Replicated Research

118. Friese K-H, Feuchter U, Möller H (1997). Die homöopathische Behandling von adenoiden Vegetationen [Homeopathic treatment of adenoid vegetations. Results of a prospective, randomized double-blind study]. HNO; 45:618–624.

119. Furuta SE, Weckx LLM, Figueiredo CR (2003). Estudo clínico, randomizado, duplocego, em crianças com adenóide obstrutiva, submetidas a tratamento homeopático [Prospective, randomized, double-blind clinical trial about efficacy of homeopathic treatment in children with obstructive adenoid]. Revista Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia; 69: 343–347.

120. Baker DG, Myers SP, Howden I, Brooks L (2003). The effects of homeopathic Argentum nitricum on test anxiety. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 11:65–71.

121. Bonne O, Shemer Y, Gorali Y, Katz M, Shalev AY (2003). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of classical homeopathy in generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry; 64:282–287.

122. McCutcheon LE (1996). Treatment of anxiety with a homeopathic remedy. Journal of Applied Nutrition; 48:2–6.

123. Paris A, Schmidlin S, Mouret S, Hodaj E, Marijnen P, Boujedaini N, Polosan M, Cracowski JL (2011). Effect of Gelsemium 5CH and 15CH on anticipatory anxiety: A phase III, single-centre, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology; 25:42. (2 sets of comparisons: both non-conclusive)

Childhood asthma
124. de Freitas LAS, Goldenstein E, Sanna OM (1995). A relação médico-paciente indireta e o tratamento homeopático na asma infantile [The indirect patient-doctor relationship and the homeopathic treatment of childhood asthma]. Revista de Homeopatia; 60:26–31.

125. Thompson EA, Shaw A, Nichol J, Hollinghurst S, Henderson AJ, Thompson T, Sharp D (2011). The feasibility of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to compare usual care with usual care plus individualised homeopathy, in children requiring secondary care for asthma. Homeopathy; 100: 122–130.

126. White A, Slade P, Hunt C, Hart A, Ernst E (2003). Individualised homeopathy as an adjunct in the treatment of childhood asthma: a randomised placebo controlled trial. Thorax; 58:317–321.

127. Fisher P, McCarney R, Hasford C, Vickers A (2006). Evaluation of specific and non-specific effects in homeopathy: Feasibility study for a randomised trial. Homeopathy; 95:215–222. (2 sets of comparisons: one negative; one non-conclusive)

128. Merklinger S, Messemer C, Niederle S (1995). Ekzembehandlung mit cardiospermum halicacabum: Cardiospermum-Salbe und Salbengrundlage im Halbseitenvergleich – eine kontrolllerte Studie [Treatment of eczema with Cardiospermum halicacabum: Cardiospermum ointment and the ointment vehicle – a controlled study]. Zeitschrift für Phytotherapie; 16: 263–266.

129. Siebenwirth J, Lüdtke R, Remy W, Rakoski J, Borelli S, Ring J (2009). Wirksamkeit einer klassisch-homöopathischen Therapie bei atopischem Ekzem. Eine randomisierte, placebokontrollierte Doppelblindstudie [Effectiveness of classical homeopathic treatment in atopic eczema. A randomised placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin; 16: 315–323.

130. Bignamini M, Bertoli A, Consolandi AM, Dovera N, Saruggia M, Taino S, Tubertini A (1987). Controlled double-blind trial with Baryta carbonica 15CH versus placebo in a group of hypertensive subjects confined to bed in two old people’s homes. British Homoeopathic Journal; 76:114–119.

131. Hitzenberger G, Korn A, Dorcsi M, Bauer P, Wohlzogen FX (1982). Kontrollierte randomisierte doppelblinde Studie zum Vergleich einer Behandlung von Patienten mit essentieller Hypertonie mit homöopathischen und pharmakologisch wirksamen Medikamenten [A controlled randomized double-blind cross-over study of the effects of antihypertensive pharmacotherapy and homeopathy in patients with essential hypertension]. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift; 94:665–670.

132. Hitzenberger G, Rehak PH (2005). Zur Wirkung eines homöopathi-schen Fertigarzneimittels auf den Blutdruck von Hypertonikern: Eine randomisierte doppelblinde kontrollierte Parallelgruppen-Vergleichsstudie [The effect of a homeopathic drug on the blood pressure of hypertensive patients: a randomized double-blind, controlled, parallel-group, comparative trial]. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift; 155:392–396.

133. Meissner K, Ziep D (2011). Organ-specifity of placebo effects on blood pressure. Autonomic Neuroscience, 164: 62–66.

134. Saha S, Koley M, Hossain SI, Mundle M, Ghosh S, Nag G, Datta AK, Rath P (2013). Individualized homoeopathy versus placebo in essential hypertension: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Indian J Res Homoeopathy; 7: 62-71.

Menopausal symptoms after breast cancer
135. Jacobs J, Herman P, Heron K, Olsen S, Vaughters L (2005). Homeopathy for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 11:21–27. (2 sets of comparisons: both non-conclusive)

136. Thompson EA, Montgomery A, Douglas D, Reilly D (2005). A pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of individualized homeopathy for symptoms of estrogen withdrawal in breast-cancer survivors. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine; 11:13–20.

137. Straumsheim P, Borchgrevink C, Mowinckel P, Kierulf H, Hafslund O (2000). Homeopathic treatment of migraine: a double blind, placebo controlled trial of 68 patients. British Homeopathic Journal; 89:4–7.

138. Whitmarsh TE, Coleston-Shields DM, Steiner TJ (1997). Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study of homeopathic prophylaxis of migraine. Cephalalgia; 17:600-604.

Post-operative pain / swelling
139. Brinkhaus B, Wilkens JM, Lüdtke R, Hunger J, Witt CM, Willich SN (2006). Homeopathic arnica therapy in patients receiving knee surgery: results of three randomised double-blind trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 14:237–246. (3 sets of comparisons: one positive; two non-conclusive)

140. Kaziro GS (1984). Metronidazole (Flagyl) and Arnica montana in the prevention of post-surgical complications, a comparative placebo controlled clinical trial. British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery; 22:42–49. (2 sets of comparisons: both negative)

141. Stevinson C, Devaraj VS, Fountain-Barber A, Hawkins S, Ernst E (2003). Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine; 96:60–65.

142. Kainz JT, Kozel G, Haidvogl M, Smolle J (1996). Homoeopathic versus placebo therapy of children with warts on the hands: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Dermatology; 193:318–320.

143. Labrecque M, Audet D, Latulippe LG, Drouin J (1992). Homoeopathic treatment of plantar warts. Canadian Medical Association Journal; 146:1749–1753.

Singleton RCTs
(including single papers that report more than one set of comparisons)

Allergic rhinitis

144. Liu L-L, Wan K-S, Cheng C-F, Tsai M-H, Wu Y-L, Wu W-F (2013). Effectiveness of MORA electronic homeopathic copies of remedies for allergic rhinitis: A short-term, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. European Journal of Integrative Medicine; 5: 119-125.

Ankylosing spondylitis
145. Schirmer K-P, Fritz M, Jäckel WH (2000). Wirksamkeit von Formica rufa und Eigenblut-Injektionen bei Patienten mit ankylosierender Spondylitis: eine doppelblinde, randomisierte Studie [Efficacy of Formica rufa and reinjection of patient's own blood on patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a double-blind, randomized study]. Zeitschrift für Rheumatologie; 59:321–329.

Body weight loss
146. Schmidt JM, Ostermayr B (2002). Does a homeopathic ultramolecular dilution of Thyroidinum 30cH affect the rate of body weight reduction in fasting patients? A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial. Homeopathy; 91:197–206.

Cerebral palsy
147. Sajedi F, Alizad V, Alaeddini F, Fatemi R, Mazaherinezhad A (2008). The effect of adding homeopathic treatment to rehabilitation on muscle tone of children with spastic cerebral palsy. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice; 14:33–37.

Chemotherapy-induced emesis
148. Pérol D, Provençal J, Hardy-Bessard AC, Coeffic D, Jacquin JP, Agostini C, Bachelot T, Guastalla JP, Pivot X, Martin JP, Bajard A, Ray-Coquard I (2012). Can treatment with Cocculine improve the control of chemotherapy-induced emesis in early breast cancer patients? A randomized, multi-centered, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase III trial. BMC Cancer;12:603.

149. Gaucher C, Jeulin D, Peycru P, Amengual C (1994). A double blind randomized placebo controlled study of cholera treatment with highly diluted and succussed solutions. British Homoeopathic Journal; 83:132–134.

Chronic periodontitis
150. Mourão LC, Moutinho H, Canabarro A (2013). Additional benefits of homeopathy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: A randomized clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract; 19: 246-250.

151. Mokkapatti R (1992). An experimental double-blind study to evaluate the use of Euphrasia in preventing conjunctivitis. British Homoeopathic Journal; 81:22–24.

152. Zanasi A, Mazzolini M, Tursi F, Morselli-Labate AM, Paccapelo A, Lecchi M (2013). Homeopathic medicine for acute cough in upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics: In Press.

Dengue fever symptoms
153. Jacobs J, Fernandez EA, Merizalde B, Avila-Montes GA, Crothers D (2007). The use of homeopathic combination remedy for dengue fever symptoms: a pilot RCT in Honduras. Homeopathy; 96:22–26.

154. Paterson C, Ewings P, Brazier JE, Britten N (2003). Treating dyspepsia with acupuncture and homeopathy: reflections on a pilot study by researchers, practitioners and participants. Complementary Therapies in Medicine; 11:78–84.

Eye infection
155. Stoffel L, Zimmermann D, Hunkeler R, Zimmermann C, Ramos M, Fathi-Torriani M, Kropf G, Nelle M (2007). Euphrasia-Augentropfen bei Neugeborenen: Ein Pilotprojekt [Euphrasia eye drops in neonates: a pilot project]. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Ganzheitsmedizin; 19:254–259.

156. Walach H, Häusler W, Lowes T, Mussbach D, Schamell U, Springer W, Stritzl G, Haag G (1997). Classical homeopathic treatment of chronic headaches. Cephalalgia; 17:119–126.

157. Rastogi DP, Singh VP, Singh V, Dey SK, Rao K (1999). Homeopathy in HIV infection: a trial report of double-blind placebo controlled study. British Homoeopathic Journal; 88:49–57. (2 sets of comparisons: one positive; one non-conclusive)

Induction of labour
158. Beer AM, Heiliger F (1999). Caulophyllum D4 zur Geburtsinduktion bei vorzeitigem Blasensprung – eine Doppelblindstudie [Randomized, double-blind trial of Caulophyllum D4 for induction of labour after premature rupture of the membranes at term]. Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde; 59:431–435.

Lead poisoning
159. Padilha RQ, Riera R, Atallah ÁN (2011). Homeopathic Plumbum metallicum for lead poisoning: a randomized clinical trial. Homeopathy;100:116–121.

160. van Erp VMA, Brands M (1996). Homoeopathic treatment of malaria in Ghana: open study and clinical trial. British Homoeopathic Journal; 85:66–70.

Male infertility
161. Schreier T, Hartmann M, Petzoldt D, Monga B, Roebruck P, Runnebaum B, Gerhard J (1997). Homöopathie versus konventionelle Therapie bei mannlicher Unfruchtbarkeit – Zwischenbericht einer randomisierten Studie [Homoeopathy versus conventional treatment in male infertility – interim report of a randomized study]. Forschende Komplementärmedizin und Klassische Naturheilkunde; 4:325–331.

Mental fatigue
162. Dean ME, Karsandas R, Bland JM, Gooch D, MacPherson H (2012). Homeopathy for mental fatigue: lessons from a randomized, triple blind, placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med;12:167.

Minor burns
163. Leaman AM, Gorman D (1989). Cantharis in the early treatment of minor burns. Archives of Emergency Medicine; 6:259–261.

164. Sencer SF, Zhou T, Freedman LS, Ives JA, Chen Z, Wall D, Nieder ML, Grupp SA, Yu LC, Sahdev I, Jonas WB, Wallace JD, Oberbaum M (2012). Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children’s Oncology Group. Bone Marrow Transplant;47:1409-1414.

Orthostatic hypotension
165. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W (1987). Orthostatische Dysregulation. Kontrollierter Wirkungsvergleich zwischen Etilefrin 5 mg und dem homöopathischen Arzneimittel Haplopappus D2 [Orthostatic dysregulation. Controlled equivalence trial with Etilefrin 5 mg vs. the homeopathic medicine Haplopappus D2]. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin; 63:18–23.

Otitis media (chronic)
166. Harrison H, Fixsen A, Vickers A (1999). A randomized comparison of homoeopathic and standard care for the treatment of glue ear in children. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 7:132–135.

Post-operative bleeding
167. Cornu C, Joseph P, Gaillard S, Bauer C, Vedrinne C, Bissery A, Melot G, Bossard N, Belon P, Lehot J-J (2010). No effect of a homoeopathic combination of Arnica montana and Bryonia alba on bleeding, inflammation, and ischaemia after aortic valve surgery. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 69:136–142.

Post-operative haematoma
168. Ramelet AA, Buchheim G, Lorenz P, Imfeld M (2000). Homeopathic Arnica in postoperative haematomas: a double-blind study. Dermatology; 201: 347–348.

Postpartum pain
169. Hofmeyr GJ, Piccioni V, Blauhof P (1990). Postpartum homoeopathic Arnica montana: a potency-finding pilot study. British Journal of Clinical Practice; 44:619–621. (2 sets of comparisons: both non-conclusive)

170. Jansen GRHJ, van der Veer ALJ, Hagenaars J, van der Juy A (1992). Lessons learnt from an unsuccessful clinical trial of homoeopathy. Results of a small-scale, double-blind trial in proctocolitis. British Homoeopathic Journal; 81:132–138.

Shift lag
171. La Pine MP, Malcomson FN, Torrance JM, Marsh NV (2006). Night shift: can a homeopathic remedy alleviate shift lag? Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing; 25:130–136.

172. Simpson JJ, Donaldson I, Davies WE (1998). Use of homeopathy in the treatment of tinnitus. British Journal of Audiology; 32:227–233.

Withdrawal of benzodiazepines
173. Cialdella P, Boissel JP, Belon P (2001). Spécialités homéopathiques en substitution de benzodiazépines: étude en double-insu vs. placebo [Complex homeopathic medicines as substitutes for benzodiazepines: double-blind study vs. placebo]. Thérapie; 56:397–402. (2 sets of comparisons: both non-conclusive)

Tentatively negative direction of RCT evidence: 5 medical conditions
Singleton RCTs (including single papers that report more than one set of comparisons)

Leg ulcers
174. Garrett B, Harrison PV, Stewart T, Porter I (1997). A trial of homoeopathic treatment of leg ulcers. Journal of Dermatological Treatment; 8:115–117. (2 sets of comparisons: one negative; one non-conclusive)

Post-operative analgesic intake
175. Paris A, Gonnet N, Chaussard C, Belon P, Rocourt F, Saragaglia D, Cracowski JL (2008). Effect of homeopathy on analgesic intake following knee ligament reconstruction: a phase III monocentre randomized placebo controlled study. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 65:180–187. (2 sets of comparisons: one negative; one non-conclusive)

Post-operative ileus
176. GRECHO (Groupe de Recherches et d’Essais Cliniques en Homéopathie), U292 INSERM, ARC (Association de Recherche en Chirurgie), GREPA (Groupe de Recherche et d’Étude de la Paroi Abdominal) (1989). Evaluation de deux produits homéopathiques sur la reprise du transit après chirurgie digestive – Un essai contrôlé multicentrique [Evaluation of the effects of two homeopathic preparations on the resumption of intestinal peristalsis after digestive tract surgery – A multicentre controlled trial]. Presse Médicale; 18:59–62. (2 sets of comparisons: one negative; one non-conclusive)

Vulvo-vaginal candidiasis
177. Witt A, Kaufmann U, Bitschnau M, Tempfer C, Özbal A, Haytouglu E, Gregor H, Kiss H (2009). Monthly itraconazole versus classic homeopathy for the treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomised trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology; 116:1499–1505.

Replicated research

Rheumatoid arthritis
178. Andrade L, Ferraz MB, Atra E, Castro A, Silva MSM (1991). A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of homoeopathy in rheumatoid arthritis. Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology; 20:204–208.

179. Brien S, Lachance L, Prescott P, McDermott C, Lewith G (2011). Homeopathy has clinical benefits in rheumatoid arthritis patients that are attributable to the consultation process but not the homeopathic remedy: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology (Oxford); 50:1070–1082. (3 sets of comparisons: all non-conclusive)

180. Fisher P, Scott DL (2001). A randomized controlled trial of homeopathy in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology; 40:1052–1055.

181. Wiesenauer M, Gaus W (1991). Wirksamkeitsnachweis eines Homöopathikums bei chronischer Polyarthritis. Eine randomisierte Doppelblindstudie bei nieder-gelassenen Ärzten [A randomized double-blind trial on the efficacy of a homeopathic drug for rheumatoid arthritis]. Aktuelle Rheumatologie; 16:1–21.